1
PPT Slide 
2
SRM tutorial 
3
Prerequisite 
4
Outline 
5
PPT Slide 
6
In the beginning ... 
7
PPT Slide 
8
Other interoperability examples 
9
Why is accuracy needed
for coordinate transformations? 
10
Target shooting at a visible target
in the real world 
11
Simulation of target shooting
at a visible target 
12
Servicing a nonvisible target
in the real world 
13
Augmented Transverse Mercator(ATM) example 
14
SRM requirements 
15
Location is not enough 
16
The scope of the SRM 
17
It’s a Loooong way up 
18
The SRM encompasses
more than the Earth 
19
The SRM requires a shared solution 
20
SRM goals 
21
SRM concepts 
22
Key concepts
(Preview) 
23
Key concepts
(Preview) 
24
Key concepts
(Preview) 
25
SRM concepts 
26
Spatial objects and objectspace 
27
Spatial objects and objectspace 
28
SRM concepts 
29
Positionspace and embeddings 
30
Positionspace and embeddings 
31
Positionspace and embeddings 
32
Positionspace and embeddings 
33
7 parameter transformation 
34
SRM concepts 
35
How are embeddings specified? 
36
Reference datums 
37
Reference datum (RD) 
38
Reference datum (RD) 
39
3D point RDs 
40
3D directed curve RDs 
41
Oriented surface RD (planes) 
42
Oriented surface RD (ellipsoids) 
43
Standard reference datums 
44
RD bindings 
45
RD bindings and embedding compatibility 
46
RD bindings and embedding compatibility 
47
Object reference models 
48
Object reference models 
49
Object reference model template 
50
ORMT example 
51
Realization of an ORMT 
52
3D ORMTs 
53
standard ORMs 
54
ORMT realization example 
55
Binding categories 
56
ORMs vs. object models 
57
SRM concepts 
58
Coordinate Systems (CS) 
59
Coordinates for positionspace 
60
Coordinate system type 
61
Coordinate system characteristics 
62
Spherical CS specification
Part 1 
63
Spherical CS specification
Part 2 
64
Lococentric spherical CS 
65
Coordinate surfaces and curves 
66
Coordinate surfaces and curves 
67
Map projections 
68
Map projections 
69
Map projections 
70
Map projection distortion 
71
Map projections 
72
Azimuth 
73
Convergence of the Meridian 
74
Map projection as a surface CS 
75
Augmented map projections 
76
Augmented map projections 
77
Augmented map projections 
78
Geometry:
coordinatespace vs. positionspace 
79
Standard coordinate systems 
80
Surface CS
induced on a coordinate surface 
81
Temporal CS 
82
Spatial coordinate systems 
83
Spatial coordinate systems 
84
Spatial coordinate systems 
85
Spatial coordinate systems 
86
SRM concepts 
87
Spatial reference frame (SRF) 
88
Spatial reference frame 
89
Celestiodetic SRF 
90
Celestiodetic SRF 
91
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
92
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
93
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
94
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
95
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
96
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
97
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
98
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
99
Canonical
Local tangent space Euclidean SRF 
100
SRF templates 
101
SRFTs for 3D objectspace 
102
SRFTs for 3D objectspace 
103
SRF example 
104
SRFTs for 2D objectspace 
105
Reference vectors 
106
Reference vectors 
107
SRM concepts 
108
Earth surfaces 
109
Vertical offset model (VOM) 
110
Vertical offset model (VOM) 
111
SRM concepts 
112
Spatial operations 
113
Change of embeddings 
114
Change of embeddings 
115
Coordinate transformation 
116
Change SRF operations 
117
Coordinate conversion 
118
Change SRF operations 
119
Change SRF operations 
120
Spatial operations 
121
Abstract API 
122
SRM API 
123
SRM API object hierarchy (1 of 6) 
124
SRM API object hierarchy (2 of 6) 
125
SRM API object hierarchy (3 of 6) 
126
SRM API object hierarchy (4 of 6) 
127
SRM API object hierarchy (5 of 6) 
128
SRM API object hierarchy (6 of 6) 
129
SRM API nonobject functions 
130
Abstract API examples 
131
Abstract API examples 
132
SRM API Implementation 
133
Computational considerations 
134
Error sources in spatial operations software 
135
Bounds checking 
136
Distortion and computation
error tradeoff 
137
How should accuracy be specified? 
138
Ground rules for spatial operations
algorithm development 
139
Ground rules for spatial operations
algorithm development (cont’d) 
140
Ground rules for spatial operations
algorithm development (cont’d) 
141
Ground rules for spatial operations
algorithm development (cont’d) 
142
Ground rules for spatial operations
algorithm development (cont’d) 
143
Ground rules for spatial operations
algorithm development (cont’d) 
144
Ground rules for spatial operations
algorithm development (cont’d) 
145
Spatial Operations

146
Quality assurance for spatial operations 
147
The meaning of accuracy is context dependent 
148
Conformance verification for the SEDRIS implementation 
149
Acceptance testing methodology 
150
The Structure of SRM ISO Standard
ISO/IEC 18026
(Committee Draft) 
151
Structure of the SRM ISO standard
(1 of 2) 
152
Structure of the SRM ISO standard
(2 of 2) 
153
SRM concept management 
154
Further reading 
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